The Conservation of Vieques

Reproduced from Enfoques 3rd ed, by José A. Blanco and María Colbert, © Vista Higher Learning (2012).

Translation by Austin B. Hahn

“Vieques is reborn!” announces the government of this Puerto Rican municipality, which seeks to stimulate the economy of an island rich in nature but poor economically. Vieques boasts important archaeological sites, spectacular beaches, a historical fort, and a bioluminescent bay, Mosquito Bay, which is a wonder of nature. Its coral reefs contain an ecosystem of enormous productivity and biological diversity. They form a small paradise which shelter and protect an immense variety of species of plants and aquatic animals.

However, instead of having a tradition of high tourism, the island has suffered grave problems. Vieques was used for bombing practices since 1941. In that era, many people were evicted when the United States Navy occupied two areas at the ends of the island. The practices continued for several decades, but, in April of 1999, a security guard died when a bomb fell outside the live-fire range. The death of David Sanes angered the people of Vieques and gave rise to a campaign of civil disobedience. President Clinton promised to cease bomb training in Vieques, but this continued with inert bombs despite that the people of Vieques had demanded, “Not one more bomb!” The demonstrators entered the zone of fire and established camps; others demonstrated in Puerto Rico and in the United States, and they soon captured international attention. Robert Kennedy, Jr., Jesse Jackson, Rigoberta Menchú, and Dalai Lama, among others, made declarations in favor of Vieques, and many people went to jail after being arrested in the zone of fire.

The protest focused largely on problems the bombs had caused to the environment, to the economy of Vieques, and to the health of the people of Vieques. The decades of bombing practices left a high level of contamination, which includes the presence of reduced uranium (a very dangerous poison.) Some think that the incidence of cancer in Vieques – 25% higher than in any part of Puerto Rico – is due to the residents’ exposure to toxic elements. These accusations have provoked controversy, since the Navy denied the effects on the health of the people of Vieques. Finally, after a tough campaign of protesting and struggle, the bombing practices ended forever in 2003. The Navy terrains went to the Department of Hunting and Fishing, and the Environmental Agency Protection declared in 2005 that environmental cleaning of Vieques would be one of the national priorities.

The east and west ends of the island now constitute an environmental reserve, which is the largest in the Caribbean. The people of Vieques hope that the island can, in its rebirth, return to a state of higher natural purity and, at the same time, develop its economy. Vieques remains a symbol of endurance, and it’s an increasingly popular place for local and foreign tourism.

La conservación de Vieques

Reproduced from Enfoques 3rd ed, by José A. Blanco and María Colbert, © Vista Higher Learning (2012).

Reproducido de Enfoques 3.a ed, por José A. Blanco y María Colbert, © Vista Higher Learning (2012).

“¡Vieques renace!” anuncia el gobierno de este municipio puertorriqueño, que busca estimular la economía de una isla rica en naturaleza, pero pobre en economía. Vieques dispone de sitios arqueológicos  importantes, playas espectaculares, un fuerte histórico y una bahía bioluminiscente, la Bahía Mosquito, que es una maravilla de la naturaleza. Sus arrecifes de coral contienen un ecosistema de enorme productividad y diversidad biológica. Forman un pequeño paraíso que alberga y protege una inmensa variedad de especies de plantas y animales acuáticos.

Sin embargo, en vez de tener una tradición de alto turismo, la isla ha padecido graves problemas. Vieques fue utilizada para prácticas de bombardeo desde 1941. En esa época muchas personas fueron desalojadas cuando la Armada de los Estados Unidos ocupó dos áreas en los extremos de la isla. Las prácticas continuaron por varias décadas, pero en abril de 1999 un guardia de seguridad murió cuando una bomba cayó fuera de la zona de tiro. La muerte de David Sanes encolerizó a los viequenses y dio origen a una campaña de desobediencia civil. El presidente Clinton prometió cesar el entrenamiento de bombardeo en Vieques, pero éste continuó con bombas inertes a pesar de que los viequenses habían exigido. “¡Ni una bomba más!”. Los manifestantes entraban en la zona de tiro y establecían campamentos; otros se manifestaban en Puerto Rico y en los Estados Unidos, y pronto captaron la atención internacional. Robert Kennedy, Jr., Jesse Jackson, Rigoberta Menchú y el Dalai Lama, entre otros, hicieron declaraciones a favor de Vieques y muchas personas fueron a la cárcel después de ser arrestadas en la zona de tiro.

La protesta se centró en gran parte en los problemas que las bombas habían causado al medio ambiente, a la economía de Vieques y a la salud de los viequenses. Las décadas de prácticas de bombardeo dejaron un nivel muy alto de contaminación, que incluye la presencia de uranio reducido (un veneno muy peligroso). Algunos piensan que la incidencia de cáncer en Vieques –25% más alta que la de todo Puerto Rico— se debe a la exposición de los habitantes a elementos tóxicos. Estas acusaciones han provocado controversia, ya que la Armada negó los efectos sobre la salud de los viequenses. Finalmente, después de una dura campaña de protesta y lucha, las prácticas de bombardeo terminaron para siempre en 2003. Los terrenos de la Armada pasaron al Departamento de Protección Ambiental (EPA) declaró en 2005 que la limpieza ambiental de Vieques sería una de las prioridades nacionales.

Los extremos este y oeste de la isla ahora constituyen una reserva ambiental, la más grande del Caribe. Los viequenses esperan que la isla pueda, en su renacimiento, volver a un estado de mayor pureza natural y al mismo tiempo desarrollar su economía. Vieques sigue siendo un símbolo de resistencia y es un lugar cada día más popular para el turismo local y extranjero.

For Sufferers of Interstitial Cystitis

By Austin B. Hahn

According to the Interstitial Cystitis Association, a nonprofit organization that advocates for improved treatments and research on a cure for Interstitial Cystitis, twelve million people in the United States suffer from this bladder disease. Interstitial Cystitis, also known as IC, is a condition associated with bladder pain and urinating frequently and urgently (MedlinePlus). As someone who has suffered from IC, I know the frustration a person may experience when seeking treatment. I took numerous medications: doxycycline, azithromycin, rocephin, uribel, and ciprofloxacin. Unfortunately, none of them worked. After consulting with my general practitioner, seeing a naturopathic doctor, and visiting a urologist, I knew I had to find other methods of treatment. After researching online, I found several herbs for IC that could work in conjunction with acupuncture. For those who are suffering or have loved ones who are plagued by this chronic condition, I am delighted to share this information, and I hope it helps you along your journey of healing and recovery.

I. Grapefruit Seed Extract

During my research, I learned about grapefruit seed extract (GSE) and ran across several articles about its effectiveness in treating IC. My experience confirmed its efficacy. Grapefruit seed extract is used “for bacterial, viral, and fungal infections including yeast infections” (“Grapefruit Overview”). According to a report by Xiaowei Su and Doris H. D’Souza from the Department of Food Science and Technology at the University of Tennessee, GSE treatments resulted in significant viral reductions. You can view the report here. The article mentions that one study, “found that GSE at 1 mg/ml could cause 99% inhibition in the growth of Staphylococcus aureus,” which is a bacteria responsible for staph infections. GSE’s antibacterial properties are also effective against E.coli and salmonella (Souza and Su 2). Furthermore, a recent study conducted by Microbiologists from the University of Georgia showed that GSE is an “effective non-toxic disinfectant” (”Benefits of Grapefruit”). The herb has been reported as non-toxic at “50 to 100 mg per day” (Souza and Su 2).

II. Uva ursi, marshmallow root, and corn silk

Uva ursi, also known as bearberry, is used for urinary tract disorders “including infections of the kidney, bladder, and urethra; swelling (inflammation) of the urinary tract; increased urination; painful urination; and urine that contains excess uric acid or other acids” (WebMD). Kathi Keville, Director of the American Herb Association, mentions in her book, Herbs for Health and Healing, that uva ursi can be taken with marshmallow root to help fight infection and to soothe the urinary tract (119). The University of Maryland Medical Center notes that although only a handful of scientific studies examining the effects of marshmallow have been done, one study did confirm that it helps “soothe irritated mucous membranes” (”Marshmallow”). Once symptoms of IC have subsided, several herbs can be used to heal the urinary tract, but I have only had experience with corn silk. Corn silk is also used for other urinary disorders such as dysuria, prostatitis, urethritis, and “for acute and chronic inflammation of the urinary tract” (Spiteri 41). While uva ursi may provide some relief from IC, it “should not be used for more than 2 weeks, and no more than 5 times a year” (EBSCO). For more information on side effects and interactions with medications, visit webmd.com.

III. Garlic

As someone who has suffered from interstitial cystitis, I recommend trying garlic. Garlic has anti-inflammatory properties and may be beneficial for people with auto-immune diseases to incorporate it into their diet (Coles). I also use garlic whenever I have a yeast infection since it’s anti-bacterial and anti-fungal (Higdon and Drake). However, I advise using fresh garlic extract rather than garlic powder because it’s more effective against candidiasis, which is a fungal infection that results from yeast overgrowth (Lemar, et. al; “Candidiasis”).

IV. Acupuncture

Acupuncture is an alternative therapy that’s usually administered by traditional Chinese medicine practitioners who insert needles along certain points of the body in order to re-balance the flow of energy which is also known as qi (“Acupuncture”). Although acupuncture doesn’t specifically target a disease in the way Western medicine does, it “is suited to treating the manifestations” and is “effective for prompt alleviation of acute symptoms” (Dharmananda). In one study, women who received acupuncture treatments four times a week for bladder-related complications “had significant improvements in bladder capacity, urgency, frequency, and quality-of-life” (Emmons and Otto). In addition, as a male, I can also attest to acupuncture’s efficacy. I was prescribed herbs and treated by an acupuncturist for interstitial cystitis, and, ten months later, my symptoms had subsided. Acupuncture is a wonderful remedy.

V. Enterococcus: A Root Cause?

There are multiple theories concerning the cause of IC, ranging from autoimmunity to inflammation of the bladder, but I want to focus on an antibiotic resistant bacteria known as Enterococcus (WebMD; Fraser, et. al). Over several years, I noticed people with chronic urinary tract infections reporting on online forums that their urine culture tested positive for Enterococcus, so I decided to research it. Enterococci are found in the intestinal flora and in human feces, but “the genus Enterococcus includes more than 17 species, although only a few cause clinical infections in humans” such as Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium (Fraser, et. al; Boehm and Sassoubre). Enterococci can cause urinary tract infections (UTIs), and it has become difficult to treat due to its acquired resistance to penicillin and other antibiotics (Fraser, et. al). Moreover, enterococci can replicate in environments “such as on beach sands and in water containing kelp” and can survive on common hospital items which includes scrub suits, lab coats, and hospital privacy drapes (Boehm and Sassoubre; Neely and Maley). Unfortunately, Enterococcus species can temporarily withstand temperatures of 60°C, and E. faecium has spread in hospitals and communities across five continents in the last two decades (Fraser, et. al). On a personal note, these findings underscore how easily Enterococcus can be transmitted and the vulnerability of hospital patients and healthcare workers. Treating enterococcal urinary tract infections “should be guided by urine culture and susceptibility results” (Alangaden and Swaminathan). There is currently no cure for interstitial cystitis (“IC Treatments”).

While I do not claim to be an epidemiologist, “a public health professional who investigates patterns and causes of disease and injury,” I believe Enterococcus has the potential to threaten the well-being of the human race (“Epidemiologists”). Its resistance to antibiotics and ability to survive in a variety of environments thwart the efforts of physicians, leaving them with few treatment options. Despite numerous online reports from people whose urine culture came back positive for Enterococcus, I have only found a few articles discussing a possible link between enterococcal infections and IC. Although I acknowledge the advancements that have been made in medicine, this resistant bacteria calls attention to what we do not know in the fields of medicine and science. Even though I am no expert, I contend that if we don’t find a cure, more people could become infected, which might lead to mutations and make infections harder to treat. With the emergence of Enterococcus, there’s little to wonder as to why people are turning to alternative medicine.

For more information on herbal medicines, you can access Maria Spiteri’s book from the University of Malta online at: https://www.um.edu.mt/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/148975/herbalmonographs.pdf

Works Cited

“Acupuncture.” Mayo Clinic. Mayo Clinic, 21 Feb. 2015. Web. 5 Oct. 2015.

“Benefits of Grapefruit Seed Extract.” Global Healing Center. Global Healing Center, n.d. Web. 21 Sep. 2015.

“Candidiasis.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 12 Jun. 2015. Web. 3 Oct. 2015.

“Epidemiologists.” Bureau of Labor Statistics. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 8 Jan. 2014. Web. 7 Oct. 2015.

“Grapefruit Overview Information.” WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 29 Sep. 2015.

“IC Treatments.” Interstitial Cystitis Association. Interstitial Cystitis Association, 15 Jan. 2013. Web. 8 Oct. 2015.

“Interstitial Cystitis.” MedilinePlus. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 28 Sep. 2015.

“Interstitial Cystitis.” WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 8 Oct. 2015.

“Marshmallow.” University of Maryland Medical Center. University of Maryland Medical Center, 26 May 2014. Web. 2 Oct. 2015.

“Uva Ursi Overview Information.” WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 30 Sep. 2015.

“Uva Ursi.” EBSCO. EBSCO CAM Review Board, Aug. 2013. Web. 20 Sep. 2015. <http://therapy.epnet.com/nat/GetContent.asp?chunkiid=21533&gt;

Boehm, Alexandria B., and Lauren M. Sassoubre. “Enterococci as Indicators of Environmental Fecal Contamination.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. National Center for Biotechnology Information, 5 Feb. 2014. Web. 6 Oct. 2015.

Coles, Terri. “Benefits of Garlic.” The Huffington Post Canada. The Huffington Post Canada, 25 Sep. 2013. Web. 1 Oct. 2015.

Dharmananda, Subhuti. “TREATMENT OF INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS WITH CHINESE MEDICINE.” Institute for Traditional Chinese Medicine. Institute for Traditional Chinese Medicine, May 2003. Web. 6 Oct. 2015.

Emmons, SL, and Otto L. “Acupuncture for overactive bladder.” Obstetrics and gynecology 106.1 (2005): 138-43. PMC. Web. 4 Oct. 2015.

Fraser, Susan L., et. al. “Enterococcal Infections.” Medscape. WebMD, 24 Jun. 2015. Web. 5 Oct. 2015.

Grover, Sonal, et al. “Role of Inflammation in Bladder Function and Interstitial                     Cystitis.” Therapeutic Advances in Urology 3.1 (2011): 19–33. PMC. Web. 21 Sep. 2015.

Higdon, Jane, and Victoria J. Drake. “Garlic.” Oregon State University. Linus Pauling Institute, Jul. 2008. Web. 2 Oct. 2015.

Interstitial Cystitis Association. Interstitial Cystitis Association, 21 Apr. 2015. Web. 27 Sep. 2015.

Keville, Kathi. Herbs for Health and Healing. n.p.: Rodale Press, 1996. Print.

Lemar, KM, et. al. “Garlic (Allium sativum).” Journal of Applied Microbiology 93.3 (2002): 398-405. PMC. Web. 5 Oct. 2015.

Neely, Alice N., and Matthew P. Maley. “Survival of Enterococci and Staphylococci on Hospital Fabrics and Plastic.” Journal of Clinical Microbiology 38.2 (2000): 724–726. PMC. Web. 3 Oct. 2015.

Spiteri, Maria. Herbal Monographs. Malta: University of Malta, 2011. Web. <https://www.um.edu.mt/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/148975/herbalmonographs.pdf&gt;

Su, Xiaowei, and Doris H. D’Souza. “Grape Seed Extract for Control of Human Enteric Viruses.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77.12 (2011): 3982–3987. PMC. Web. 17 Sep. 2015.

Swaminathan, S, and GJ Alangaden. “Treatment of resistant enterococcal urinary tract infections.” Current infectious disease reports. 12.6 (2010): 455-64. PMC. 7 Oct. 2015.

Williams, David. “The (Unfortunately) Secret Weapon.” Dr. David Williams. n.p., 30 Jun. 2015. Web. 28 Sep. 2015.